There are five major areas of curriculum in a Montessori environment that were discovered through Dr. Maria Montessori’s scientific observation of the natural tendencies children have toward learning. The four main areas of the Montessori curriculum are, Practical Life or Everyday Living Skills, Sensorial or learning through the senses, Language and Mathematics. The fifth curriculum area is Culture. The Montessori culture area includes Geography, Science, Music and Art.


Activities help children develop daily life skills such as refining their motor skills and caring for themselves and their surroundings and grace and courtesy. The activities of Practical Life take the child closer to independence and bundled with that are feelings of security, confidence, and self- worth. Children learn how to make their own snack and pour their own water. They know how to dress themselves and clean up if he makes a mess or fold their laundry. Children can make a noticeable impact on their immediate environment and this is a very empowering feeling for them. This area directly feeds the need of the children to imitate the activity of the adults in their lives and to become independent. This area is for every child who cries out “let me do it by myself!” Practical Life exercises include pouring, sorting, food preparation, care of self (hand washing, dressing oneself), care of the environment (table setting, sweeping), and grace and courtesy lessons (saying excuse me, introducing oneself.) Practical Life skills are the foundation of all other areas in a Montessori environment. Consequently, all of the Practical Life activities are designed to be purposeful work that leads children to more complicated work; children refine their fine motor skills through repetition of Practical Life exercises. Practical Life activities build children’s concentration, coordination, order and independence enabling them to master other Montessori curriculum areas. Children love the Practical Life area because it enables them to do adult work in a child size environment. With more and more success comes greater confidence, giving them the internal foundation to believe in themselves with the realization that they can conquer any task through repetition and perseverance. The concentration children develop through using Practical Life works will aid in future skills and success in other areas of the Montessori curriculum such as Sensorial, Language and Math and Culture.

Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed.

With the unique Montessori Sensorial materials, children work on such skills as visual and auditory discrimination, the child’s sense of color, of size, of distance, length and dimensions. The Sensorial materials and activities are designed to refine the child’s physical senses. The senses are the child’s window to the world. By the time children reach the age of two and a half or three, they are not only attracted to sensory stimuli but is also ready to start sorting and organizing these sensory impressions. The Sensorial materials provide an opportunity for the child to create order out of the innumerable sensory impressions he receives. The ability to do this is an important beginning to advanced intellectual development- which requires a solid foundation in the ability to gather and process information. Our various Sensorial activities help the child to experience his environment in a richer, deeper, and more enjoyable way. The Montessori Sensorial curriculum promotes the development and refinement of the five senses. Children learn through their senses and all materials in a Montessori environment provide learning through touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing or hands-on manipulation. Sensorial exercises demonstrate an introduction to Math using the Base Ten Mathematical or Decimal System. The Sensorial materials and curriculum create a method of learning through the senses and an introduction to the Montessori Mathematics curriculum. Children enjoy exploring Sensorial exercises especially around the age of 3 and 4. Some examples of Sensorial learning activities are sorting objects, matching colours, matching same tastes or same smells. A popular Montessori Sensorial work is the pink tower where pink cubes are built from the largest at the bottom to the smallest cube at the top. The pink tower cubes are a concrete representation of the Decimal Numeral or Base Ten System of Mathematics. Children love to build the pink tower and the brown stairs!

We cannot create observers by saying 'observe', but by giving them the power and the means for this observation and these means are procured through education of the senses.

The remarkable Montessori math materials not only teach basic counting skills but bring such abstract concepts as the decimal system, squaring, cubing, and geometry into the realm of the preschool mind. Concrete and hands on material allow a child’s mathematical concepts to be simplified and understood with lucidity. The Montessori Mathematics materials are extraordinary and a gift to a child’s logical mind. The Montessori preschool Mathematics curriculum is a powerful learning tool for developing a strong foundation in math. Dr. Maria Montessori realized that all children have a“Mathematical Mind” and that when they are given the opportunity to explore math in a concrete way, through “hands-on” materials, abstract math concepts become easier to comprehend. She created her Mathematics and Sensorial curriculum based on the Decimal Numeral System or Base Ten Mathematical system. All Montessori Mathematics materials are based on abstract concepts and create concrete learning materials that children use independently. The Montessori Mathematics program creates a concrete foundation of math skills that are invaluable for future learning. The Montessori Math materials cover recognition of math patterns, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fraction work and skip counting.

The results we obtain with our little ones contrast oddly with the fact that mathematics is so often held to be a bane rather than a pleasure in school programmes. Most people develop” mental barriers” against it. Yet all is easy if only its roots can be implanted in the absorbent mind.

Our language curriculum uses a systematic approach to writing and reading that feeds the child’s innate excitement for and desire to communicate. There is lots of vocabulary and pre-literacy development in the early years that helps the children quickly progress to writing and reading. We create an environment that is rich in language experiences. Our language curriculum includes oral and spoken language, writing, reading and eventually an introduction to grammar. Language is naturally integrated into all curriculum areas of the classroom. Dr. Maria Montessori realized that there is a sensitive period of language development and that the richer the learning environment, the more beneficial for the acquisition of a child’s skills and love of reading and writing The Montessori preschool Language program is a complete literacy program for children ages 2.5-6. The program begins with story-telling, sound games with objects, and eventually children are introduced to grammar by age 5. The reading and writing materials are didactic in nature as children are able to practice the materials on their own. The Language curriculum is phonetic in nature and utilizes games and powerful teaching tools to help children learn to decode phonetic words, high frequency/sight words, diphthongs and digraphs. It is powerful in promoting early reading and writing skills using a variety of games and activities.The Montessori Language program is a powerful curriculum supporting the natural ability and love children have for language.

Science and geography activities that a child finds in our classroom are designed make the child a truly global citizen who loves and respects the wonders of nature and the world. Children work with maps, learn about various cultures around the world, celebrate similarities and differences, and ponder the beauty of the natural world. Children realize they are part of an interconnected system of relationships between everything that exists in this universe. It is to help them develop a sense of respect and responsibility for not only other people, but also everything in the natural environment. The Culture curriculum provides a wide array of activities including learning about the continents of the world and their uniqueness such as animals and habitats. Montessori Culture activities include pictures of the places and people of the continents, books and flags of the world. Children learn the names of the continents, oceans and countries of the world. They learn through “hands-on” materials such as puzzle maps of the world. Similar to math, science can be a challenging subject for children but when introduced during the “Absorbent Mind” period of learning, children become familiar with concepts of observation, science, hypothesis etc. Montessori Culture activities help to inspire a love of learning and offer children a new perspective of the world.